This post is a simple explanation of the methods of cooling for PC from the simplest to the most complex in my view, will not go into details, dedicate to post the details of each type separately
Passive heat-sink cooling
Well passive heat sink cooling is very simple and does not produce any noise, this type of cooling consists of a single block of aluminum or copper or their combination that will make the exchange heat between the CPU and the air, depending on how the cooler is designed and the size it will be more effective to keep cool the CPU.
This type of cooling is used in some ultrathin laptops, mobile phones and tablets because they do not have their gap for some air movement, we must have in mind that if we want to keep cold the CPU while playing a game of last generation or rendered a video is not the best option because it does not cool the cpu in comparison to other methods of cooling, but if you only use the computer for simple tasks and you don`t like the noise of the fans in the PC this is a very good choice.
Active cooling or air cooling
We started with a little more complex solutions, if we don´t have experienced with assembling a computer it is best left to an expert because if we do something wrong in the installation we could have leakage problems and we know that’s bad for our computer, this type of cooling is more expensive than the above methods mentionced, the liquid cooling has more parts to assemble but also there are some assembly that we just need to install in our cabinet, we must be careful with the tubes not to twist them to much cause we could broke them or have leaks.
Liquid cooling is more effective than the active cooling because heat transfer to the water is more effective, plus they have less noise, even water cooling without fans is effective.
Liquid cooling by immersion
I know it sounds quite exaggerated dip our pc in water, but is a variation of the liquid cooling where submerged our pc a fishtank and fill it with a liquid with low electrical conductivity, also there are cabinets designed for this even if they are rare to find, the liquid used for this is mineral oil with this method we can forget about the fans just with a simple cooler.
We must be very careful with this method of cooling we can have leaks and even do some short circuit in the wires, in my opinion it is a very exaggerated method but for those doing heavy tasks on your PC can be a very good choice for avoid overheating, another inconvenientis the fact that if we make the change of any part this will be covered by the mineral oil.
Phase change cooling
Well this is like having a refrigerator since the operation is basically the same, cabinets need a large space to have everything in the cabinet, some put the compressor outside the cabinet, this cooling method is more for people who like push hard with the overclocking because you need to keep the overclocked cpu at low temperatures, the installation of this cooling method is complex because we need to get a paste cover from around the CPU and not leave air spaces as the compressor can generate low temperatures and condense moisture from the air and that generate water around our cpu, if we are just ordinary users or gamers with liquid cooling or dipping It in mineral oil will be enough.
Liquid nitrogen cooling
This method is primarily used by overclockers as this is a fairly complex method, like the previous method should take care not to leave air spaces in CPU cause the condensation, this method is used to reduce the temperatures reached by a CPU with a very exaggerated overclocking, this method is not recommended for common use of a PC is normally used in overclocking competitions where they do some test about the speed reached by the CPU, also we need to stay alert about the temperature because if it cools too much the cpu it will stop working.